Chemotherapy is systemic drug treatment intended to stop cancer cells from dividing and growing. Chemotherapy is often associated with unpleasant side effects since it targets all rapidly growing cells, in addition to cancer cells.
View Clinical Trials For Chemotherapy
Individual Chemotherapy Drugs
These drugs work by inserting an "alkyl agent" into the DNA structure which prevents cancer cells from dividing.
- Cytoxan® / Cyclophosphamide
Anthracyclines are antibiotics that attack cancer cells by disrupting DNA and preventing cell division.
- Adriamycin® / Doxorubicin
- Doxil® / Liposomal Doxorubicin
- Ellence® / Epirubicin
- Novantrone® / Mitoxantrone
Platinum drugs are anti-cancer drugs that contain the metal platinum. They bind to DNA and interfere with the cell's ability to repair itself, eventually leading to cell death.
- Paraplatin® / Carboplatin
- Platinol® / Cisplatin
Taxanes inhibit cell growth by stopping cell division. They act by interfering with cellular microtubules, structures that play an important role in many cellular functions, including cell division. Taxanes are often used in combination with other chemotherapy agents.
- Abraxane® / Paclitaxel Protein-bound
- Taxol® / Paclitaxel
- Taxotere® / Docetaxel
Navelbine® inhibits cancer cell growth by stopping cell division. It works by interfering with the formation of cellular microtubules, important structures that cells need in order to divide.
Other Chemotherapy drugs
- Adrucil® / Fluorouracil (5-FU)
- Camptosor® / Irinotecan
- Gemzar® / Gemcitabine
- Halaven® / Eribulin
- Ixempra® / Ixabepilone
- Temodar® / Temozolomide
- Xeloda® / Capecitabine
- High dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue
Common Chemotherapy Regimens for Early Stage Breast Cancer
- AC: Adriamycin®, Cytoxan®
- AC + Taxol®: Adriamycin®, Cytoxan®, Taxol®
- AC + Taxotere®: Adriamycin®, Cytoxan, Taxotere®
- CMF: Cytoxan®, Methotrexate, 5-Flourouracil
- EC: Epirubicin, Cytoxan®
- FAC: 5-Flourouracil, Adriamycin®, Cytoxan®
- FEC: 5-Flourouracil, Epirubicin, Cytoxan®
- TC: Taxotere®, Cytoxan®
- TAC: Taxotere®, Adriamycin®, Cytoxan®
- TC: Taxotere®, Carboplatin
Common Chemotherapy Regimens for Metastatic Breast Cancer
- Taxol® + Xeloda®
- Taxotere® + Xeloda®
- Taxotere® + Carboplatin
- Taxol® + Carboplatin
- Taxol® + Gemzar®
- Abraxane® + Xeloda®
- Abraxane® + Carboplatin
- Irinotecan + Temozolomide
- Gemzar® + Carboplatin
- Ixempra® + Xeloda®
Hormonal therapies are intended to prevent hormone-receptor positive cells from being exposed to the hormones that cause them to grow; they are used in both prevention and treatment. There are three main types of hormone therapies: anti-estrogen drugs, aromatase inhibitors, and ovarian suppressors.
View Clinical Trials For Hormone Therapy
Anti-estrogen drugs block the effects of estrogen in the breast by binding to estrogen receptors on tumor cells. By attaching themselves to receptors, anti-estrogens prevent the cell from responding to estrogen's growth-promoting activities. Raloxifene is an anti-estrogen drug approved for prevention of breast cancer by the FDA.
- Evista® / Raloxifene
- Fareston® / Toremifine
- Faslodex® / Fulvestrant
- Nolvadex® / Tamoxifen
These drugs block aromatase, a molecule required to produce estrogen. Aromatase inhibitors are only effective in postmenopausal women whose ovaries are no longer producing estrogen.
- Arimidex / Anastrozole
- Aromasin / Exemestane
- Femara / Letrozole
Suppressing the ability of the ovaries to produce estrogen is a viable treatment for estrogen-sensitive breast tumors in premenopausal women.
- Lupron® / Leuprolide
- Plenaxis® / Abarelix
- Suprefact® / Buserlin
- Zoladex® / Goserelin
Other Endocrine/Hormone Therapy
- Megace® / Megestrol Acetate
Bisphosphonate therapy, commonly used for osteoporosis, is also used to treat breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Bisphosphonate therapy is also prescribed for patients who are taking aromatase inhibitors for early stage breast cancer, since in some patients, aromatase inhibitors weaken bone.
View Clinical Trials For Bisphosphonate Therapy
- Actonel® / Risedronate
- Aredia® / Pamidronate
- Boniva® / Ibandronate
- Fosamex® /Alendronate
- Xgeva® /Denosumab
- Zometa® / Zoledronate
Targeted Biological Therapy
Targeted/biological therapies (or immune targeted therapies) focus on blocking the actions of certain normal body proteins that allow cancer cells to grow and divide. These treatments target cancer cells, lessening toxicity and reducing side effects.
View Clinical Trials For Targeted Therapy
- Afinitor® / Everolimus: Everolimus is a targeted therapy that acts by inhibiting an enzyme involved in cancer cell growth. Everolimus specifically targets a protein kinase enzyme called mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).
- Avastin® / Bevacizumab is an anti-angiogenesis targeted therapy. Anti-angiogenesis therapy works by cutting off the blood supply of tumors, which limits tumor growth.
- Herceptin® / Trastuzumab: Both a targeted and biological therapy, Herceptin® is a monoclonal antibody that specifically attaches to the HER2/neu receptor. Located on the cell surface, the HER2/neu receptor normally binds to a growth-promoting agent. By binding to this receptor, Herceptin® prevents the normal growth factor from signaling the tumor cell to divide.
- Kadcyla® / T-DM1 (Ado-trastuzumab emtansine): Kadcyla combines Herceptin and a chemotherapy drug (DM1) that interferes with cancer cell growth. Kadcyla delivers Herceptin and DM1 directly to HER2-positive cells, and limits exposure of the rest of the body to the chemotherapy.
- Lapatinib® / Tykerb targets tumor cells that express the HER2/neu protein. In contrast to Herceptin®, Lapatinib blocks the HER2/neu protein inside the cell rather than at the cell surface.
- Perjeta® / Pertuzumab: Perjeta works by targeting a different part of the HER2 protein than Herceptin, resulting in further reduction in growth of HER2-positive breast cancer cells.